lack of WSS infrastructure
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in Chapter 5
5 If It’s Broke, Fix It

So, how will water utilities fill in the cavernous funding gap left by the state to secure our cities water networks? Traditionally, infrastructure financing usually comes from three sources: tariffs, taxes, and transfers11. Focusing first on the Global North, water utilities have turned to their customers through tariff (i.e., service costs) increases. In the US, the cost of water services has been rising well above inflation, with the average water bill increasing by 5 percent annually over the last decade4. The country hardest hit by this trend is Australia, where residents have seen their water bills double since 2010 to pay off massive investments into new desalination plants constructed to combat the Millennium Drought plaguing the country for the past decade.