Al Hillah, Iraq
ancient problems
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in Chapter 2
2 A Brief History of the Urbanization of H2O

Periodically, when waste became too unruly, streets were covered with another layer of clay(d McMahon, 2015). In time, the dense concentration of people and housing began to compress subsurface soils and generate increasingly unmanageable amounts of waste, making these proto cities increasingly susceptible to both pandemics and disastrous flooding events(Ortloff, 2009).

Mesopotamian sewerage line, present day Turkey